For this week’s assignment, I created a faded worked example screencast titled “Parenthetical APA Citations” using the free Explain Everything app for iOS on my iPad. Although I also used Explain Everything for my digital storytelling project, I thought the screencast project might allow me to use some of the app’s more robust features. I’m glad I used it again; I learned about some of its additional features, like its ability to allow users to embed a new, live web browser into a screen, and to add visual elements to a slide via the timeline. I’m really excited about using this app for building tutorials for my library.
Following creation of the screencast, I uploaded it to YouTube. I used the Transcribe and Auto-Sync method to add closed captions in YouTube. I like that this feature does a nice job of automatically figuring out timing, and that it uses my script, which I just paste into the transcript area. This is a great way to ensure a level of quality that is lacking, in my opinion, in the auto-transcription feature in YouTube.
In the screencast, learners see how to create a parenthetical citation in APA style for an article with two authors. Next, they see an example of an article with three authors, and they are given the opportunity to consider how a parenthetical citation for this example might differ from one with two authors. Finally, they are asked to create a citation for a “subsequent” citation of the three-author article.
My first challenge in completing this assignment was deciding what I could do that related to my work in information literacy instruction that would make a good worked example problem. With limited time, I wanted to work on a basic problem that was straightforward and not too complex. I’m just not sure the problem I chose was ideal.
Another difficulty in creating this video was in deciding what software tool I wanted to use. Initially I wanted to use Articulate Storyline so that learners could actually complete the citations within the software rather than having to pause a video and write down their responses to prompts on paper. Ultimately, however, I decided that learners who want to engage with the material with engage whether they have to type on the screen or write on paper. Some problems with the computer on which I have Storyline loaded also helped me conclude that Explain Everything was my best choice.
Another problem area was finding a way to show APA-related resource material without violating copyright. I had considered using the in-slide browser window to demonstrate the use of Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab APA resources, but their copyright statement specifically prohibits broadcasting of the site without permission. I also considered reproducing the APA publication manual’s in-text citation table from page 177 of the book’s 6th edition. Instead, I decided to refer to this source, while modifying the examples it uses for display in the video. I think it’s likely that I could have used the table on page 177 under Fair Use, but it was actually easier to create my own examples from which to work.
I tried to incorporate the multimedia principles as much as I could in the video. Evidence of multimedia principles appears as follows:
Modality principle: In most of the video, I used audio narration to describe the steps involved in each example instead of adding text for learners to read.
Redundancy principle: When I wanted students to be able to refer back to text on the screen–in the self-explanation question, for example–I explained that learners should pause the video to read and address the question. I didn’t narrate the text, which might have caused cognitive overload.
Personalization principle: I used a conversational tone, including the use of second-person language, throughout the video. I avoided using direct statements, such as “Pause the video,” and instead used polite suggestions, giving learners a feeling of choice and cooperation.
To support far transfer, I incorporated varied context examples. In the first example, learners see an article with two authors. In the second, they see an article with three authors, which requires a slightly different citation format. In the final example, learners are asked to cite a three-author article in a subsequent citation, which has a completely different format than the first two scenarios. These are common scenarios that students in a college setting are likely to encounter across classes, years, and disciplines, and they need to be able to transfer this knowledge. Furthermore, I used a self-explanation question that encouraged students to consider what we had just done–cited a two-author article–and apply it to what we were about to do.
Here’s my worked example video. Enjoy!